Impact of Diagenetic Alterations on Reservoir Quality and Heterogeneity of Paralic and Shallow Marine Sandstones : Links to Depositional Facies and Sequence Stratigraphy
Abstract: This thesis constrains the distribution of diagenetic alterations and their impact on reservoir-quality and heterogeneity evolution pathways in relation to depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy (systems tracts and key sequence stratigraphic surfaces) of four selected paralic and shallow marine siliciclastic successions. Typical eogenetic alterations encountered include the dissolution and kaolinitization of framework silicates, which are closely associated to shoreface facies of forced regressive systems tract (FRWST), lowstand systems tract (LST), upper part of the highstand systems tract (HST), and below the sequence boundary (SB). These alterations are attributed to incursion of meteoric water owing to rapid and considerable fall in the relative sea level. Extensive carbonate cementation is most evident below marine and maximum flooding surfaces (MFS), whereas dissolution of carbonate cement and detrital dolomite occur in LST, HST and below SB. Parameters controlling the patterns and texture (microcrystalline vs. poikilotopic) of calcite cement have been constrained within sequence stratigraphic framework of the sandstones. Coarse crystalline to poikilotopic calcite textures of meteoric water origin are thus closely linked to the FRWST, LST and upper part of the HST sandstones and occur mainly as stratabound concretions, whereas microcrystalline calcite, which was precipitated from marine porewaters, occurs as continuously cemented layers in the transgressive systems tract (TST) and lower part of the HST sandstones.Eogenetic alterations impose, in turn, profound control on the distribution pattern of mesogenetic alterations, and hence on reservoir quality evolution (destruction vs. preservation) pathways of sandstones. Eogenetic infiltrated clays, which occur in the tidal estuarine TST and HST sandstones, have helped preserving porosity in deeply buried sandstone reservoirs (≈ 5 km) through inhibition of extensive cementation by quartz overgrowths. Other essential findings of this thesis include deciphering the control on the formation of authigenic illite and chlorite by ultra-thin (≤ 1 µm thick), grain-coating clay mineral substrate.
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