Measurement and modelling of unbalanced magnetic pull in hydropower generators

University dissertation from Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Abstract: Hydropower research is often perceived to be an old and exhausted field of study but with ageing equipment and the need for more intermittent operation caused by an increased share of other renewable energy sources new challenges lie ahead.The main focus of this dissertation are the electromagnetic forces resulting from nonuniform air gap flux, whether it be caused by rotor eccentricity or a faulty field winding. Results are predominantly obtained from measurements on an experimental generator and numerical simulations.With the computational capacity available today it is possible to numerically analyse physical phenomena that previously could only be studied with analytical tools. Numerical models can also be expanded to encompass more than one aspect of generator operation in coupled field-circuit models without model complexity surpassing computer capability.Three studies of unbalanced magnetic pull, UMP, in synchronous salient pole generators constitute the main part of this thesis.The first is a study of how parallel stator circuits affect the unbalanced magnetic pull caused by rotor eccentricity. Depending on the relationship between the geometry of the separate circuits and the direction of the eccentricity it was found that parallel circuits could reduce the UMP substantially.Secondly, an investigation of the effect of damper winding configuration on UMP was performed. The results showed that damper winding resistivity and the distance between the damper bars in a pole determine the effectiveness of the damper winding in reducing the UMP. Simulations of a production machine indicate that the reduction can be substantial from damper windings with low resistivity.The third study analyses the consequences of field winding interturn short circuits. Apart from a resulting rotating unbalanced magnetic pull it is found that the unaffected poles with the same polarity as the affected pole experience an increase in flux density.In a fourth article a new stand still frequency response, SSFR, test method including measurements of damper winding voltage and current is presented. It is found that the identified models are capable of predicting the stator to damper transfer function both with and without the damper winding measurements included.