# Reordering in Noncommutative Algebras, Orthogonal Polynomials and Operators

Abstract: The main object studied in this thesis is the multi-parametric family of unital associative complex algebras generated by the element $Q$ and the finite or infinite set $\{S_j\}_{j\in J}$ of elements satisfying the commutation relations $S_jQ=\sigma_j(Q)S_j$, where $\sigma_j$ is a polynomial for all $j\in J$. A concrete representation is given by the operators $Q_x(f)(x)=xf(x)$ and $\alpha_{\sigma_j}(f)(x)=f(\sigma_j(x))$ acting on polynomials or other suitable functions. The main goal is to reorder arbitrary elements in this family and some of its generalizations, and to study properties of operators in some representing operator algebras, including their connections to orthogonal polynomials. For $J=\{1\}$ and $\sigma(x)=x+1$, the above commutation relations reduce to the famous classical Heisenberg--Lie commutation relation $SQ-QS=S$. Reordering an element in $S$ and $Q$ means to bring it, using the commutation relation, into a form where all elements $Q$ stand either to the left or to the right. For example, $SQ^2=Q^2S+2QS+S$. In general, one can use the commutation relation $SQ-QS=S$ successively and transform for any positive integer $n$ the element $SQ^n$ into a form where all elements $Q$ stand to the left. The coefficients which appear upon reordering in this case are the binomial coefficients. General reordering formulas for arbitrary elements in noncommutative algebras defined by commutation relations are important in many research directions, open problems and applications of the algebras and their operator representations. In investigation of the structure, representation theory and applications of noncommutative algebras, an important role is played by the explicit description of suitable normal forms for noncommutative expressions or functions of generators. Further investigation of the operator representations of the commutation relations by difference type operators on Hilbert function spaces leads to interesting connections to functional analysis and orthogonal polynomials. This thesis consists of two main parts. The first part is devoted to the multi-parametric family of algebras introduced above. General reordering formulas for arbitrary elements in this family are derived, generalizing some well-known results. As an example of an application of the formulas, centralizers and centers are computed. Some operator representations of the above algebras are also described, including considering them in the context of twisted derivations. The second part of this thesis is devoted to a special representation of these algebras by difference operators associated with action by shifts on the complex plane. It is shown that there are three systems of orthogonal polynomials of the class of Meixner--Pollaczek polynomials that are connected by these operators. Boundedness properties of two singular integral operators of convolution type connected to these difference operators are investigated in the Hilbert spaces related to these systems of orthogonal polynomials. Orthogonal polynomials are used to prove boundedness in the weighted spaces and Fourier analysis is used to prove boundedness in the translation invariant case. It is proved in both cases that the two operators are bounded on the $L^2$-spaces and estimates of the norms are obtained. This investigation is also extended to $L^p$-spaces on the real line where it is proved again that the two operators are bounded.

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