Interacting fermions and non-equilibrium properties of one-dimensional many-body systems
Abstract: Recent experimental progress on ultracold atomic gases have opened up the possibility to simulate many-body systems out of equilibrium. We consider such a system described by the Luttinger model, which is a model of interacting fermions in one spatial dimension.It is well known that the Luttinger model is exactly solvable using bosonization. This also remains true for certain extensions of the model, e.g., where, in addition, the fermions are coupled to phonons. We give a self-contained account of bosonization, together with complete proofs, and show how this can be used to solve the Luttinger model and the above fermion-phonon model rigorously.The main focus is on non-equilibrium properties of the Luttinger model. We use the exact solution of the Luttinger model, with non-local interactions, to study the evolution starting from a non-uniform initial state with a position-dependent chemical potential. The system is shown to reach a current-carrying final steady state, in which the universal value of the electrical conductance, known from near-to-equilibrium settings, is recovered. We also study the effects of suddenly changing the interactions and show that the final state has memory of the initial state, which is, e.g., manifested by non- equilibrium exponents in its fermion two-point correlation functions.
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