Investigations of Slag Properties and Reactions
Abstract: The present dissertation describes the efforts directed towards the development of computational tools to support process modeling. This work is also a further development of the Thermoslag® software developed in the Division of Materials Process Science, KTH.The essential parts of the thesis area) development of a semi-empirical model for the estimation of the molar volumes/densities of multicomponent slags with a view to incorporate the same in the model for viscosities andb) further development of the viscosity model for application towards fluoride- and manganese containing slags, as for example, mould flux slags and manganese slags used in ferromanganese production.c) estimating fluoride emissions from industrial slags and mould fluxes.d) study the reaction between carbon particles, hematite containing slags and in oxygen containing atmosphere.The model for the estimation of molar volume is based on a correlation between the relative integral molar volume of a slag system and the relative integral molar enthalpies of mixing of the same system. The integral molar enthalpies of the relevant systems could be evaluated from the Gibbs energy data available in the Thermoslag® software. The binary parameters were evaluated from experimental measurements of the molar volumes. Satisfactory correlations were obtained in the case of the binary silicate and aluminate systems. The model was extended to ternary and multi component systems by computing the molar volumes using the binary parameters. The model predictions showed agreements with the molar volume data available in literature. The model was used to estimate the molar volumes of industrial slags as well as to trace the trends in molar volume due to enable prediction of molar volumes of slags that are compatible with the thermodynamic data available.With a view to extend the existing model for viscosities to F--containing slags, the viscosities of mould flux slags for continuous casting in steel production have been investigated in the present work. The measurements were carried out utilizing the rotating cylinder method. Seven mould fluxes used in the Swedish steel industry and the impact of Al2O3 pick up by mould flux slags on viscosities were included in the study. The results showed that even relatively small additions of Al2O3 are related with a significant increase in viscosity.A similar experimental technique was employed to estimate the viscosity of twelve synthetic slags corresponding to composition of the raw materials used in ferromanganese production. The flow rate of the liquid slag, which is determined by the slag viscosity, is an important parameter affecting the reduction rate of manganese oxide. The results show a clear correlation between manganese oxide content and viscosity. An increase of MnO in the slag lowers the viscosity. The measured viscosities have also been connected to the structure of the silicates.The fluoride loss from the binary slag systems Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-SiO2 and MgOSiO2 with additions of CaF2 was studied by thermogravimetric (TGA) studies. The Arrhenius activation energy for the evaporation reaction of fluorides was found to be dependent on temperature and slag chemistry for the slags studied. A correlation between the activation energy for fluoride evaporation and activity of SiO2 in the slag melt was established. This relationship obtained for the binary systems appears also to be suitable for the ternary systems Al2O3-CaO-SiO2 with CaF2 addition, which indicates a possibility to estimate the fluoride emissions from industrial slags and mould fluxes.A Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy was used to investigate the reaction between carbon particles in hematite containing slags and in oxygen containing atmosphere. Experiments with varying temperature and slags with varying FeOx content were carried out. The general trends were that the particle size decrease was more rapid with increase of FeOx amount and/or temperature was increased.
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