Intentions and Reality in Architectural Heritage Management. In Search of the Influence of International Policy Documents on Contemporary Sustainable Local Heritage Management. Case: Zanzibar Stone Town, Tanzania

Abstract: Abstract We live in a world where millions of people seek global citizenship but simultaneously search for their identity as defi ned by ethnicity and locality – global assimilation with stronger self-awareness. The global interactions of today, founded in a context of unity, have on the contrary proven to be fragmented and complex in a way that splits nations into regions demanding autonomy. Cultures that have reinforced societies for many years are destroyed or have vanished. At the same time as politicians and international organisations eagerly try to reach international agreements arguing the importance of cultural heritage as the backbone of a sustainable development, local communities living with their heritage are encouraged by the international society to become self-reliant and strong decision makers. This thesis aims to increase understanding of the relationship between policy documents and their impact on architectural heritage management, so as to help build a platform of understanding that will bridge the gap between the local community and international policy level. The intention is to develop design criteria for re-thinking architectural heritage management. The approach to reach an operational analysis is based on a modifi ed Grounded Theory and an applied methodology of Geographic Information System. The subject studied is Zanzibar Stone Town, Tanzania, listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 2000, and relevant selected international and local policy documents, to see if the espoused outcome of the policy documents is to be seen in the management of Zanzibar Stone Town. The finding of this research is that international policies and the scientifi c and theoretical approaches to architectural heritage management are predominantly out of step with the concept of sustainable architectural heritage management. The study shows that a “bottom-up” approach to sustainable architectural management is required and therefore that a process of re-thinking an integrated heritage management is demanded. According to this study contemporary architectural heritage management has to be responsive to the needs and objectives of the local community. Keywords: Intentions, reality, architectural and cultural heritage, policy documents, sustainability, sustainable management, design criteria, identity, global and local, and the selection of attributes: producer, type, conservation, object, threat, tool and intention.

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