Electromagnetic transformer modelling including the ferromagnetic core

University dissertation from Stockholm : KTH

Abstract: In order to design a power transformer it is important to understand its internal electromagnetic behaviour. That can be obtained by measurements on physical transformers, analytical expressions and computer simulations. One benefit with simulations is that the transformer can be studied before it is built physically and that the consequences of changing dimensions and parameters easily can be assessed.In this thesis a time-domain transformer model is presented. The model includes core phenomena as magnetic static hysteresis, eddy current and excess losses. Moreover, the model comprises winding phenomena as eddy currents, capacitive effects and leakage flux. The core and windings are first modelled separately and then connected together in a composite transformer model. This results in a detailed transformer model.One important result of the thesis is the feasibility to simulate dynamic magnetization including the inhomogeneous field distribution due to eddy currents in the magnetic core material. This is achieved by using a Cauer circuit combined with models for static and dynamic magnetization. Thereby, all magnetic loss components in the material can be simulated accurately. This composite dynamic magnetization model is verified through experiments showing very good correspondence with measurements.Furthermore, the composite transformer model is verified through measurements. The model is shown to yield good correspondence with measurements in normal operation and non-normal operations like no-load, inrush current and DC-magnetization.