Assembly of the Caledonian Orogenic Wedge, Jämtland, Sweden
Abstract: Collisional orogeny creates the largest mountain belts on Earth. The Caledonides of Scandinavia are a deeply eroded, ancient mountain belt, which today exposes a deep section through the former orogenic interior. The orogenic internides hold important geological information necessary to understand the geodynamic processes shaping collisional plate boundaries. This thesis explores the kinematics and timing of orogenic wedge formation in Jämtland, central Sweden. An integrated approach of structural field mapping, microstructural analysis, Rb–Sr radiogenic dating and rock magnetism yielded new and comprehensive tectonochronologic data. A regionally extensive network of kinematic field data demonstrated pervasive ductile top-to-the-ESE shearing across the entire tectonostratigraphy. Rb–Sr multi-mineral isochron ages constrained the absolute timing of ductile deformation to c. 430 Ma and c. 415 Ma. Local structural and magnetic data showed that final nappe emplacement and exhumation had occurred before extensional deformation initiated. The new data presented in this thesis contradicted a tectonic model previously proposed for Caledonian nappe stacking. These findings were used to develop an alternative tectonic model consistent with both the new and other available structural, petrological and chronological data. The new model for orogenic wedge assembly comprises three stages of foreland-directed, top-to-the-ESE thrusting. It reflects the complex interactions caused by the merging of two subduction zones accommodating Baltica–arc–Laurentia collisions during Ordovician to Devonian time.
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