Infrared Emittance of Paper Method Development, Measurements and Application
Abstract: Thermography is a non-destructive technique which uses infrared radiation to obtain the temperature distribution of an object. The technique is increasingly used in the pulp and paper industry. To convert the detected infrared radiation to a temperature, the emittance of the material must be known. For several influencing parameters the emittance of paper and board has not previously been studied in detail. This is partly due to the lack of emittance measurement methods that allow for studying the influence of these parameters.An angle-resolved goniometric method for measuring the infrared emittance of a material was developed in this thesis. The method is based on the reference emitter methodology, and uses commercial infrared cameras to determine the emittance. The method was applied to study the dependence on wavelength range, temperature, observation angle, moisture ratio, sample composition, and sample structure of the emittance of paper and board samples. It was found that the emittance varied significantly with wavelength range, observation angle and moisture ratio. The emittance was significantly higher in the LWIR (Long-Wavelength Infrared) range than in the MWIR (Mid-Wavelength Infrared) range. The emittance was approximately constant up to an observation angle of 60° in the MWIR range and 70° in the LWIR range, respectively. After that it started to decrease. The emittance of moist samples was significantly higher than that of dry samples. The influence of moisture ratio on the emittance could be estimated based on the moisture ratio of the sample, and the emittance of pure water and dry material, respectively.The applicability of measured emittance values was demonstrated in an investigation of the mechanical properties of sack paper samples. An infrared camera was applied to monitor the generation of heat during a tensile test of a paper sample. It was found that the observed increase in thermal energy at the time of rupture corresponded well to the value of the elastic energy stored in the sample just prior to rupture. The measured emittance value provided an increased accuracy in the thermal energy calculation based on the infrared images.
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