Intestinal Gene Expression Profiling and Fatty Acid Responses to a High-fat Diet
Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) regulates nutrient uptake, secretes hormones and has a crucial gut flora and enteric nervous system. Of relevance for these functions are the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the solute carriers (SLCs). The Adhesion GPCR subfamily is known to mediate neural development and immune system functioning, whereas SLCs transport e.g. amino acids, fatty acids (FAs) and drugs over membranes. We aimed to comprehensively characterize Adhesion GPCR and SLC gene expression along the rat GIT. Using qPCR we measured expression of 78 SLCs as well as all 30 Adhesion GPCRs in a twelve-segment GIT model. 21 of the Adhesion GPCRs had a widespread (≥5 segments) or ubiquitous (≥11 segments) expression. Restricted expression patterns were characteristic for most group VII members. Of the SLCs, we found the majority (56 %) of these transcripts to be expressed in all GIT segments. SLCs were predominantly found in the absorption-responsible gut regions. Both Adhesion GPCRs and SLCs were widely expressed in the rat GIT, suggesting important roles. The distribution of Adhesion GPCRs defines them as a potential pharmacological target.FAs constitute an important energy source and have been implicated in the worldwide obesity increase. FAs and their ratios – indices for activities of e.g. the desaturase enzymes SCD-1 (SCD-16, 16:1n-7/16:0), D6D (18:3n-6/18:2n-6) and D5D (20:4n-6/20:3n-6) – have been associated with e.g. overall mortality and BMI. We examined whether differences in FAs and their indices in five lipid fractions contributed to obesity susceptibility in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD), and the associations of desaturase indices between lipid fractions in animals on different diets. We found that on a HFD, obesity-prone (OP) rats had a higher SCD-16 index and a lower linoleic acid (LA) proportions in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than obesity-resistant rats. Desaturase indices were significantly correlated between many of the lipid fractions. The higher SCD-16 may indicate higher SCD-1 activity in SAT in OP rats, and combined with lower LA proportions may provide novel insights into HFD-induced obesity. The associations between desaturase indices show that plasma measurements can serve as proxies for some lipid fractions, but the correlations seem to be affected by diet and weight gain.
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